Assumption: The Earth is flat. That is the position held by the members of The Flat Earth Society. The group which is also known as the International Flat Earth Society or the International Flat Earth Research Society is an organization founded in 1956 by Englishman, Samuel Shenton. The members of the society contend and push the belief that the Earth flat rather than an oblate spheroid. The formal society was inactive between 2001and 2004 but was resurrected in 2004 by its new president Daniel Shenton.
The belief that the Earth was flat was typical until about the 4th century BC, when the Ancient Greek philosophers proposed the idea that the Earth was a sphere or at least rounded in shape. Aristotle was one of the first thinkers to propose a spherical Earth in 330 BC. Also, the notion that the Earth is flat is the basic assumption in the creation story in the Book of Genesis in The Bible. But, by the early Middle Ages it was widespread knowledge throughout Europe that the Earth was a sphere.
Modern hypotheses supporting a flat Earth originated with English inventor Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). Based on his incorrect interpretation of experiments Rowbotham published a 16-page pamphlet which he later expanded into a 430-page book, Earth Not a Globe. According to Rowbotham, the Earth is a flat with the sun and moon 3000 miles (4800 km) and the "cosmos" 3100 miles (5000 km) above earth.
The Earth was proven to be round when it was observed from outer space by US astronauts. But, such scientific finding are dismissed by the flat-earthers as either an optical illusion or out-right fraud. Nothing will convince the flat-earthers that the Earth really is a sphere.
What is even worse is from time to time the media gives credibility to the flat-earthers by exploring their views and failing to debunk their position- thus proving that every belief no matter how flawed or ill-informed that it might be has merit and is justified.
People tend to believe what they want to believe or believe something that is in line with a personal ideology or world view.
Here are some other views that are as equally outlandish as those of the Flat Earth Society.
Who wrote the plays of William Shakespeare? The answer would seem as obvious as who is buried in Grant's Tomb. But, obvious truth can be clouded by contrived issues. Such is the case with the plays and poems attributed to The Bard of Avon. The Shakespeare authorship question is the argument over whether someone other than William Shakespeare wrote the works attributed to him. There are those who maintain that Shakespeare was a front to shield the true identity of the real author or authors of the works who for some reason did not want or could not accept public credit. Although the idea has attracted much public interest, all but a few Shakespeare scholars and literary historians consider it a false belief. But, that does not stop the speculation and the books on the subject.
Shakespeare's authorship was first questioned in the middle of the 19th century. Shakespeare's obscure life, his literary skill, the number of works he created, and his wide-ranging knowledge seemed to a few people at odds with his humble origins and aroused suspicions that Shakespeare might not have written the works attributed to him. The contrived controversy has since spawned a enormous body of literature and more than 70 people have been proposed as the true author's of Shakespeare works. among the people are Sir Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlow, and Queen Elisabeth I. However, no supporting evidence, historic or otherwise, exists for any other candidate, and Shakespeare's authorship was not questioned during his lifetime or for centuries after his death.
Conspiracy theories about the citizenship of President Barack Obama claim that Obama is not a natural-born citizen of the United States and is therefore ineligible to be President of the United States under Article Two of the U.S Constitution . The birthers as they are known allege that Obama was born in Kenya and not in Hawaii and others allege that Obama became a citizen of Indonesia and therefore lost his U.S. citizenship. When the White House produced Obama's Hawaiian birth certificate, the birthers called it a forgery. When investigators found people who knew him as a child in Hawaii or failed to find Indonesian citizenship papers, the reports were dismissed. Over one-third of those in the Republican Party in the U.S. believe that Obama was not born in the country. These theories have been characterized by some commentators as racist, or a racial reaction to the first black president of the United States. Nothing will satisfy the birthers. And the notion that Obama was not born in the U.S. is kept alive by the media, the Republican Party and celebrities like Donald Trump.
Fundamentalist Christians take everything in The Bible literally and as fact. That is in spite of the fact that The Bible is fully of inconstancies, contradictions. inaccuracies, and scientific impossibilities. For instance, there are two creation stories and the order of creation is reversed in each. The birth of Jesus according to the version by Matthew says that Jesus was born in a cave, but according to Luke, Jesus was born in a stable. The Bible account of the battle of Jericho says that the sun stood still until the Israelites won. That is a scientific impossibility, because if it did the cosmos would be in jeopardy and on Earth time on the entire planet would stand still. And the fundamentalists believe that this planet is approximately 3,000 years old in spite of the scientific evidence that it is billions years older. Once fundamentalist views were held by a small minority and were marginalized. The media gives credence to their views and has allowed them to become a political force in the U.S. It has gotten to a point were in the 2008 campaign for President, the Republican candidate of President, John McCain, advocated that in science classrooms, scientific accounts and Biblical stories concerning creation be taught side-by-side so that children could decide for themselves what is fact and what to believe as truth.
Racial Supremacism is the belief that a particular race is superior to others and entitles those who identify with it to dominate, control or rule over others whom they feel are different or inferior. Yet, everyone on this planet right now is racially the same because they are all Homo sapiens and DNA evidence indicates that everyone currently on this planet is a descendant of one central African tribe. Yet, many people believe that there are different "races" and persist in believing that there is a hierarchy of races. Centuries of European colonialism of the Americas, Africa, Australia, Oceania and Asia were justified by white supremacist attitudes. During the early 20th century until 1945, the propaganda of Japan and Nazi Germany used the concept of racial superiority. In South Africa, the white minority saw itself as racially superior to the majority black population often justifying their supremacist views by citing the end of the Biblical story of Noah. And, both the South Sudanese and Darfur wars are often described as examples of Arab racism. Racism is a political tool often used by the wealthy, politicians, and war lords to get people to fight and kill. And, no amount of logic and scientific data can seem to change the minds of people that whatever "racial" group of which they are a member is the best and all the others are inferior.
Catholics believe that The Pope is God's representative on Earth and that he is infallible in matters of faith and morals. Where did these concepts come from? No, not from Jesus. They came from the Popes themselves. In other words, I am infallible because I am infallible. And, I am God's spokesman because I say so and I am infallible. The patent absurdity of this reasoning is clear, but to the Catholic faithful, it smacks of a lack of understanding and of "Catholic bashing". Consider this: If the Pope is infallible on matters of morality, why didn't Pope Pius XII speak out on the morality of the genocide of 8,000,000 Jews by predominately Catholic Germany and Austria? After all, Hitler was a Catholic. Or, was the selling of indulgencies in order to build up the coffers of the Vatican justified as a matter of faith? The ignorant masses were bilked out of money to get a piece of paper saying that their sins were forgiven because of their monetary contributions. Selling forgiveness of sins is not what Jesus had in mind, but the Popes did it and never repudiated what they did. In fact, when people saw through the scam, they were persecuted, excommunicated, or killed. In addition, The Bible says that no one speaks for God.
Trickle-down Economics is a term used in United States politics to refer to the conservative idea that tax breaks by government to the wealthy and to businesses will benefit poorer members of society by improving the economy as a whole. The term has been attributed to humorist Will Roger (1879 -1935) who said during the Great Depression (1929 - early1940's) that "money was all appropriated for the top in hopes that it would trickle down to the needy. Proponents of these policies claim that if the top income earners are taxed less that they will invest more into business and it will in turn lead to more goods at lower prices, and create more jobs for middle and lower class individuals. Proponents argue that economic growth flows down from the top to the bottom, indirectly benefiting those who do not directly benefit from the policy changes. The problem is that in the entire economic history of the planet, trickle-down economic theory has never worked. That is because the wealthy and large corporations do not care about labor, the middle class or the poor. Instead, they either hoard their money or re-invest it to make even more money. The economist John Kenneth Galbraith said that "trickle-down economics" had been tried before in the United States in the 1890s under the name horse and sparrow theory ('If you feed the horse enough oats, some will pass through to the road for the sparrows') and was partly to blame for the Panic of 1896. Presidential candidate Ross Perot called trickle-down economics "political voodoo". Former President Lyndon B. Johnson said that Republicans "are so busy operating the trickle-down theory, giving the richest corporations the biggest break, that the whole thing goes to hell in a hand-basket." Nevertheless the wealthy, their political allies and millions of Americans insist that trickle-down economics does work and insist on calling the wealthy and big corporations "job creators".