I dislike the term trivia. No knowledge is trivial. All information contributes to the whole of an intelligent human being. And, it is an essential part of critical thinking. That is why I did not call this a Trivia Quiz. Instead, I am calling it a Knowledge Quiz.
* * * *
Knowledge Quiz, No. 17
The answers are at the bottom
1. What is a denouement?
2. Who said, "The quality of mercy is not strained"?
3. What is the Apocrypha?
4. What is the modern name of the city Constantinople?
5. What was Andersonville prison?
6. From 1305 to 1378, in what city did The Pope live?
7. What communist nation had an anti-communist revolt in 1956?
8. Who are the Amish?
9. What is a chameleon?
10. What was PT109?
11. What was the previous name of the nation of Sri Lanka?
12. In addition to being an inventor, what other occupation did Samuel F. B. Morse have?
13. What are the metatarsal bones?
14. How many moons does the planet Venus have?
15. What is a Catch 22?
16. Who wrote the novel upon which the film The Wizard of Oz is based?
17. Who are the Zoroastrianism?
18. What was the original use of The Louvre Museum in Paris?
19. What are the three types of clouds?
20. Who composed Happy Birthday to You ?
* * * *
1. A dénouement (pronounced: deinu:'mon) is a theatrical term referring to the events after the climax of the play. It occurs between the falling action and the actual ending of the play and serves as the conclusion of the story. In the dénouement, any remaining questions are answered and remaining conflicts are resolved . The word dénouement is French word derived from the Old French word denoer, "to untie". In other words, a dénouement is the unraveling or untying of the complexities of a plot.
2. The character Portia says it in William Shakespeare's play, The Merchant of Venice (Act 4, scene 1). The entire quote is:
The quality of mercy is not strain'd,
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest:
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
3. The term apocrypha means "disputed", "hidden", "esoteric", "spurious", and "of questionable authenticity". With reference to The Bible, The Apocrypha is a collection of writing written at the same time as The New Testament of The Bible but rejected by Christian Churches as not divinely inspired. These non-canonical books are texts of uncertain authenticity or the content of the works are questioned. Given that different Christian denominations have different beliefs about what constitutes sacred scripture, there are several different versions of The Apocrypha. Among the disputed texts are, The Gospel According to the Hebrews, The Gospel of Judas (not the same person who betrayed Christ), The Infancy Gospel of James, The Shepherd of Hermas, 1 and 2 Clement, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and The Gospel According to Thomas.
4. Since the 10th Century, the Greek city of Constantinople has been know as Istanbul. The name derives from the Greek phrase "istimbolin" meaning "in the city" or "to the city. It is the capital of Turkey and has a population of 8,803,468.
5. Andersonville prison, officially known as Camp Sumter, served as a Confederate Prisoner-of War camp for Union soldiers during the America Civil War. Located at on the east side of Andersonville in Macon County, Georgia, the prison was started in 1864. In all, 12,913 of the approximately 45,000 Union soldiers died in Andersonville because of starvation, malnutrition, diarrhea, and disease. After the war, Henry Wirz, the commandant at Camp Sumter, was court-martialed on charges of conspiracy and murder. Wirz was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to death. On November 10, 1865, he was hanged, thus becoming the only Confederate official to be tried and convicted of war crimes resulting from the Civil War. The cemetery at Andersonville is the final resting place for the Union prisoners who perished while being held at Camp Sumter as POW's. The prisoners' burial ground has been made a National Cemetery . It contains 13,714 graves, of which 921 are marked "unknown".
6. From 1305 to 1378, seven Popes resided in Avignon, France. It is known as the Avignon Papacy and it was the result of a conflict between the Papacy and the French crown. It was the result of strife between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV, and the death after only eight months of BonifaceVIII's successor Pope Benedict XI. A deadlocked conclave in 1305 resulted in the election of Pope Clement V, a Frenchman. Clement refused to move to Rome and remained in France. In 1309, he moved his court and the Papacy to the papal enclave in Avignon. It remained there for the next 68 years. This absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon. All were French, and all were increasingly under the influence of the French crown. Finally, in 1377 Pope Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, officially ending the Avignon papacy. However, in 1378 the breakdown in relations between the cardinals and Gregory's successor, Urban VI, gave rise to the what would be called The Western Schism during which time there were 2 Popes. The schism started a second line of Avignon popes, though these are not now regarded as legitimate. The schism ended in 1417 after only two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. The last Avignon pope was Benedict XIII who had fled from Avignon to Perpignan in 1403.
7. The anti-communist revolt in 1956 took place in Hungary. It was a spontaneous nationwide revolution against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet Union imposed policies. The uprising lasted from October 23 until November 10 when Russian tanks and military invaded Hungary. 722 Soviets and 2,500 Hungarians died in the revolt.
8. The Amish are a group of Christian churches that form a subgroup of the Mennonite church. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress and an unwillingness to accept modern technology. The Amish church began with a schism led by the followers of Jakob Ammann. The split occurred in Switzerland in 1693. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish.
The rules of the church must be observed by every member. These rules include prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Many Amish church members may not buy insurance or accept government assistance. The Amish church members practice non-resistance and will not perform any type of military service.
There are about 249,000 Amish world-wide. In the U.S.. they are concentrated in the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Indiana. In Canada, they are found primarily in the province of Ontario.
9. A chameleon is a distinctive type of lizard. It is distinguished by its parrot-like feet, rapid mobility, stereoscopic eyes, very long, rapidly moving tongues, swaying gait, possession of a prehensile tails, horns on their heads, and the ability to change color. Uniquely adapted for climbing and visual hunting, the approximately 160 species of chameleon range in Africa, Asia, Madagascar, Spain, Portugal, and Sri Lanka. They have also been introduced to Hawai'i, California, and Florida in the U. S.
10. PT-109 was a PT boat (Patrol Torpedo boat) last commanded by Lieutenant, junior grade John F. Kennedy, who later became President of The United States, The PT boat operated in the Pacific during World War II. Kennedy's actions to save his surviving crew after the sinking of the PT-109 made him a war hero. However, the incident contributed to his life-long back problems. After he became President, PT 109 inspired a 1964 movie and a 1963 song.
11. Sri Lanka was previously known as Ceylon until 1972. Sri Lanka is officially known as The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. It is an island nation off the southern coast of India in the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka's name derives from the Sanskrit language and means "venerable island".
12. The inventor of the single wire telegraph and the co-inventor of Morse Code, Samuel. F. B. Morse, (1791-1872) was also an accomplished painter. Among his works are portraits of the second President of the U.S. John Adams and the Marquis de Lafayette; The Chapel of The Virgin at Subiaco; and The Gallery of the Louvre.
13. The metatarsal bones or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the human foot. They are located between the phalanges bones of the upper toes and the tarsal bones of the hind-foot and mid-foot. The five metatarsal bones lack individual names so the bones are identified by numbers from 1 to 5 starting from the medial (big toe) side of the foot.
14. Venus has no moons.
15. A Catch 22 is a logical paradox that arises from a situation in which an individual needs something that can only be acquired by not being in that very situation. Therefore, the acquiring of this thing becomes impossible. The term Catch-22 was first coined by Joseph Heller in his novel by the same name. In the novel, a U.S. bombardier pilot wishes to be grounded from combat flight. This will only happen if he is evaluated by the squadron's flight surgeon and he is found unfit to fly. To be deemed unfit, a pilot who is willing to fly such dangerous missions would have to be declared insane. However, to be evaluated the pilot must request an evaluation- act that is considered sufficient proof for being declared sane. These conditions make it impossible to be declared crazy. So, the "Catch-22" is that anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn't really crazy.
16. The book upon which the famous film The Wizard of Oz is based is the children's book by L. Frank Baum entitled The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It was originally published by the George M. Hill Company of Chicago on May 17, 1900. The book is in the public domain (the copyright has run out) since 1956. Baum wrote 13 more Oz books after his first one.
17. Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster who is also known as Zarathustra. It is the world's first monotheistic religion and was formerly among the world's largest religions. The date of the founding of the religion is uncertain, but it certain that it was founded some time before the 6th Century BC in Persia (Iran). The Zoroastrians are also called Parsis. There are still between 145,000 and 210,000 Zoroastrians worldwide the majority of whom are in India, Pakistan, Iran, Australia and America.
18. The Louvre Museum was originally built as a palace for the King of France in Paris (Palais du Louvre). In 1682,Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles as his official residence leaving the Louvre Palace as a place to display the royal art and sculpture collections. During the French Revolution , the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum.
19. Clouds can be divided into three main categories. Their names based on Latin words that indicate physical structure and process of formation. Clouds of the cirriform category are generally thin and occur mostly in the form of filaments. The other two categories are stratiform, clouds that are mostly sheet-like in structure, and cumuliform that appear heaped, rolled, and/or rippled. In English they are simply referred to as cirrus, stratus, and cumulus clouds.
20. The melody of "Happy Birthday to You" was written in 1893 by Americans Patty and Mildred Hill for a song entitled Good Morning to All. The combination of melody and lyrics in "Happy Birthday to You" based on the Hill melody first appeared in print in 1912 but may have existed earlier. The Summy Company registered for copyright in 1935, crediting authors as Preston Ware Orem and Mrs. R.R. Forman. In 1990, Warner Chappell purchased the company owning the copyright for $15 million, with the value of "Happy Birthday" estimated at $5 million. The copyright still exists for it use. Happy Birthday to You is the most recognized song and one of the most often sung songs in the English language. It has been also translated into 18 different languages.