Sunday, September 25, 2011

Knowledge Quiz, No. 21

I dislike the term trivia. No knowledge is trivial. All information contributes to the whole of an intelligent human being. And, it is an essential part of critical thinking. That is why I did not call this a Trivia Quiz. Instead, I am calling it a Knowledge Quiz.


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Knowledge Quiz, No. 21


The answers are at the bottom


1. Who was Solon?


2. Who wrote Peter Pan?


3. What do the abbreviations AM and FM stand for?


4. Where is Karl Marx buried?


5. What was the royal color of the Roman emperors?


6. Who was Garibaldi?


7. What is the capital of Brazil?


8. What is the Anthem of Europe?


9. What popular actress did baseball great Joe DiMaggio marry?


10. What is a mystery play?


11. Who painted the famous picture, Declaration of Independence ?


12. What future President of the U.S. was college roommate of novelist Nathaniel Hawthorn?


13. In what city is The Brandenburg Gate?


14. Who wrote the Brandenburg Concertos?


15. What incident started the gay pride movement?


16. Where were the first modern Olympic Games held?


17. In what ocean are the Maldives (Islands) located?


18. Who was Erté?


19. Where was the first parking meter?


20. Of what are the rings of Saturn composed?


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Answers


1. Solon (c. 638 BC – 558 BC) was an Ancient Greek Athenian statesman, lawgiver and poet. He is remembered for Solon's Code, his effort to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in Athens. Although his reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for democracy. Knowledge of Solon is limited by the lack of documentary and archeological evidence of the early 6th century BC. His works only survive in fragments. Archaeology reveals glimpses of Solon's period in the form of fragmentary inscriptions but little else. For some scholars, knowledge of Solon and his times is largely based on insufficient evidence. What is known of him and his code is based on the writing of ancient authors such as Herodotus and Plutarch who wrote hundreds of years after Solons death.


2. Peter Pan was written by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie (1860–1937). As a mischievous boy who can fly and refuses to grow up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood adventuring on the small island of Neverland as the leader of his gang the Lost Boys and dealing with mermaids, Indians, fairies, and pirates. Peter Pan first appeared in a section of The Little White Bird, a 1902 novel written by Barrie for adults. Barrie wrote a stage version of what eventually became the familiar version on the story debuted on 27 December, 1904, under the title Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up. The play was then adapted and expanded by him and published in 1911 under the title Peter and Wendy. In later editions it was titled as Peter Pan and Wendy and still later just as Peter Pan.


3. Radio is the transmission of signals through space by the modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies. AM means amplitude modulation and is a low frequency. AM transmissions are affected by static and interference because lightning and other sources of radio emissions on the same frequency add their amplitudes to the original transmitted amplitude. FM means frequency modulation and broadcasts on a higher frequency than AM. FM sends music and voice with higher fidelity than AM radio. An FM signal is clearer sounding than AM and is not subject to static and interference in the same way as AM signals.


4. Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) was a German philosopher, sociologist, historian, journalist, and socialist. He developed a political and social theory which became known as Marxism. He published various books during his lifetime, among them are The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867-1894). Marx and his wife moved from Germany to London in 1847 and became "a stateless person". Shortly after his wife died in 1881, he developed a catarrh, a disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes. It eventually brought on the bronchitis and pleurisy that killed him. He died in London on 14 March 1883. His family and friends in London buried his body in Highgate Cemetery on 17 March 1883. There were between nine to eleven mourners at his funeral. Marx's tombstone bears the carved message, Workers of the world unite, the final line of The Communist Manifesto.


5. The imperial robes of the Roman Emperors were purple trimmed in metallic gold thread. The badge of office of a Roman Senator was a stripe of purple on their white togas. Purple was continued in use by the emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire until its collapse in 1453. The shade of purple used on royal robes was Tyrian purple, named after the ancient people of Tyre. It was is the color of a dye extracted from a rare mollusk found on the shores of the city of Tyre in ancient Phoenicia (present day Lebanon).


6. Giuseppe Garibaldi (Joseph Marie Garibaldi in French) (1807-1882) was born in the French city of Nice. He became an Italian military and political figure. In his twenties, he joined the Carbonari Italian patriot revolutionaries but fled Italy after a failed insurrection. Garibaldi took part in the Civil Wars in both Brazil and Uruguay. During his stay in the United States, he is said to have become an American citizen. After his return to Italy, he was offered command of the Union forces by President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He has been dubbed the "Hero of the Two Worlds" in tribute to his military activities in both South America and Europe. He is an Italian national hero because of his military efforts during the Italian unification period.


7. The capital of Brazil is Brasilia.


8. European Union national anthem is Anthem of Europe. The Ode to Joy (original German title: Ode an die Freude) is the anthem of both the European Union and the Council of Europe. The Ode to Joy is based on the final movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 composed in 1823.


9. Joe DiMaggio (1914-1999) married Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962) on January 4, 1954. The couple eloped and married in San Francisco. DiMaggio's biographer Richard Ben Cramer asserted that their marriage was filled with "violence". Just 274 days after getting married, Marilyn Monroe filed for divorce on the grounds of mental cruelty.


10. Mystery plays are among the earliest types of European plays. The medieval mystery plays focused on Bible stories and were most frequently performed in churches. They were prevalent from the 10th to the 16th century, reaching the height of their popularity in the 15th century. They became obsolete with the rise of professional theatre. The name "mystery" in connection with these plays is itself a mystery. One possibility is that it could derive from the notion that the causes of miracles are a religious mystery. Another possibility is that the word "mystery" is derived from the Latin word "misterium" meaning "craft" because these plays were often sponsored and performed by medieval craft guilds. A remnant of the mystery play is the Passion Play, a liturgical drama which tells the story of Jesus' crucifixion. One of the most famous of these is performed every ten years in Oberammergau, Germany.


11. The painting, Declaration of Independence, is by John Trumbull (1756-1843). Trumbull did two copies of his painting. The larger oil-on-canvas painting is in the United States Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. A smaller version of his work is owned by The Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut. Trumbull painted many of the figures in the picture from life and visited Independence Hall to depict accurately the chamber where the Continental Congress met. The work also appears on the reverse side of the two dollar bill.


12. Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) was the roommate of author Nathaniel Hawthorn (1804- 1864) when both attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, in 1821. Pierce became the 14th President of the United States serving one term in office from 1853 to 1857. Hawthorn's most famous work, The Scarlet Letter, was published in 1850. He also wrote a biography of his friend, Franklin Pierce entitled The Life of Franklin Pierce.


13. The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate of Berlin, Germany. It is the only remaining gate of a series through which Berlin was once entered. The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, a boulevard of linden trees which formerly led directly to the palace of the Prussian monarchs. The gate was commissioned by King Frederick William II . Construction of the Brandenburg Gate took about 4 years, from 1788 to 1791.


14. The Brandenburg Concertos were written by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). The original title of the works was Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments and they are a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, the Margrave (hereditary nobleman with military responsibilities) of Brandenburg-Schwedt in 1721. They are widely regarded as among the finest musical compositions of the Baroque Era.


15. The Stonewall Riots were a series of spontaneous and violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar, in Greenwich Village, New York City. The riots are frequently cited as the first instance in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back against a government-sponsored intimidation and persecution of sexual minorities. The Stonewall Riots have become generally recognized as the start of the gay pride movement in the United States and around the world.


16. The first Games held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee was hosted in the Panatheniac Stadium in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The games brought together 14 nations and 241 athletes who competed in 43 events. However, Evangelis Zappas, a wealthy Greek-Romanian philanthropist, wrote to King Otto of Greece in 1856 and offered to fund a permanent revival of the Olympic Games. Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games in 1859 which were held in an Athens city square. Athletes participated from Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Zappas funded the restoration of the ancient Panathenaic Stadium so that it could host all future Olympic Games. The stadium hosted Olympics in 1870 and 1875. Thirty thousand spectators attended that games in 1870, but no official attendance figures are available for the 1875 games.


17. The Maldives (aka: The Republic of The Maldives and The Maldive Islands) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. It is in the Laccadive Sea about 435 miles (700 kilometers) south-west of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon).


18. Erté (1892-1990) was a Russian-born French artist and designer. His actual name was Romain de Tirtoff but he chose the pseudonym known Erté, the French pronunciation of his initials, R.T. He became well known for the diversity of his talents in such fields as fashion, graphic arts, costume and jewelry design, set design and interior décor.


19. The world's first installed parking meter was in Oklahoma City on July 16, 1935. Holger George Thuesen and Gerald A. Hale, engineering professors at Oklahoma State, designed the first working parking meter, the Black Maria, between 1933 and 1935.


In 1960, New York City hired the first crew of women to read the meters and give tickets for violations. They became known as "meter maids". It was not until 1967 that the first man was hired. Previously, the job was done by the police.


20. The rings of Saturn consist of countless small particles, ranging in size from micro-meters to meters that form clumps that in turn orbit around the planet. The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice with some dust contamination and other chemicals. Although reflection from the rings increases Saturn's brightness, they are not visible from Earth without a telescope. In 1610, Galileo became the very first person to observe Saturn's rings.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

News You May Have Missed, No. 24

1. Bowing to pressure from the San Francisco Bay Area's Jewish community, Oakland's Museum of Children's Art has decided to cancel its planned exhibition of drawings by Palestinian children documenting their experiences during the 2008-2009 Israeli invasion of the Gaza Strip. Organized by the Middle East Children's Alliance, "A Child's View of Gaza" was supposed to run from September 24th through mid-November; however, the public reaction against displaying the pictures convinced the museum's board of directors to halt its plan. It had become a distraction to the main objective of bringing arts education to all children, said museum board member Randolph Bell. "We were getting calls from constituents that were concerned about the situation," Bell said. "We don't have any political stake in this thing. It just became apparent that we needed to rethink this." Middle East Children's Alliance president Barbara Lubin in a press release said, "We understand all too well the enormous pressure that the museum came under. But who wins? The museum doesn’t win. MECA doesn’t win. The people of the Bay Area don’t win. Our basic constitutional freedom of speech loses. The children in Gaza lose." Pictures from the exhibit, which were culled from art therapy sessions at a number of Gaza children's centers, show images like a bomb painted with American and Israeli flags crashing into a street filled with dead bodies, helicopters destroying a city and a boot decorated with a Star of David stomping on a Palestinian flag. About 1,400 people died in the conflict and about 300 of those were children.






2. For years, researchers have known that women with a harmful mutation in BRCA genes have an elevated risk for developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. But a new study suggests that women who develop such cancers might do so at an earlier age than the generation that preceded them. Working with women at the University of Texas' Clinical Cancer Genetics clinic, researchers compared the age of diagnosis in two generations of families with a history of BRCA-related cancer (the gene mutations are often inherited). They found that the average age of diagnosis was 48 in the older generation, but 42 in the next. "Compared to the onset of the generation directly before them, we found a 7.9-year difference," said Dr. Jennifer Litton, who works in the department of breast medical oncology at the University of Texas' Cancer Center and is the study's lead author. "Our findings are very provocative that this is a phenomenon that we're really going to need to watch for in the next generation." The BRCA, or breast cancer susceptibility genes, are tumor suppressors, which typically help prevent uncontrolled cellular growth. But harmful mutations in those genes have been linked with increased risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer pre-menopause. Litton and her co-authors write in the journal Cancer that their findings support the screening recommendations of groups like the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the nonprofit alliance of more than 20 cancer centers, which suggests screening for hereditary breast cancer should begin at age 25, or five to 10 years before the earliest age of diagnosis in a family. "This study validates why we need to continue screening 10 years prior to the earliest onset," Litton said. But what it does not do, she added, is explain exactly why earlier cancer onsets might be occurring. Nor does it confirm that is actually what is taking place.






3. Astronomers using a telescope in Chile have discovered 50 previously unknown exoplanets. The number of new worlds includes 16 "super-Earths", planets with a greater mass than our own, but below those of gas giants such as Jupiter. One of the super-Earths orbits is inside the habitable zone, the region around a star where conditions could be hospitable to life. The planets were identified using the Harps instrument in La Silla in Chile. The new findings are being presented at a meeting called Extreme Solar Systems in Wyoming, US, and will appear in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. Lead author Dr Michel Mayor, from the University of Geneva in Switzerland, said the discoveries included "an exceptionally rich population of super-Earths and Neptune-type planets hosted by stars very similar to our Sun". He added, "The new results show that the pace of discovery is accelerating." Of the new finds, a total of five planets have masses that are less than five times the size of that of Earth. "These planets will be among the best targets for future space telescopes to look for signs of life in the planet's atmosphere by looking for chemical signatures such as evidence of oxygen," said Francesco Pepe, from the Geneva Observatory, who contributed to the research. Observations with Harps (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) have also allowed astronomers to come up with an improved estimate of the likelihood that a star such as the Sun will host low-mass planets such as the Earth (as opposed to giants such as Jupiter). Researchers have found that about 40% such stars have at least one planet less massive than Saturn.






4. Men appear to be biologically wired to care for their babies, say researchers who have discovered levels of testosterone go down after fatherhood. The drop in the male hormone presumably makes the dad more family-oriented and less likely to stray, say the Northwestern University (USA) team. Testosterone increases a man's sex drive and helps him compete for a mate. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences work followed 624 young men before and after they became fathers. The study revealed that as soon as a man had a baby, his testosterone levels dropped substantially. Men with newborn babies less than a month old had especially reduced levels of testosterone. This shows the hormonal and behavioral trade-off between mating and parenting, one requiring a high and the other a low testosterone level” Larger falls were also seen in those who were more involved in childcare. Christopher Kuzawa, the lead investigator of the work which was carried out in The Philippines, said, "Raising human offspring is such an effort that it is co-operative by necessity, and our study shows that human fathers are biologically wired to help with the job. Fatherhood and the demands of having a newborn baby require many emotional, psychological and physical adjustments. Our study indicates that a man's biology can change substantially to help meet those demands." Also, the researchers believe lower testosterone levels might protect against certain chronic diseases, which could, in part, explain why married men and fathers often enjoy better health than single men of the same age.






5. The "king of beers" no longer rules in the U. S.. Sales dropped by nearly a third between 2005 and 2010. Some of America’s most famous beers have lost a tremendous amount of their national sales over the last five years. Mostly, they are full-calorie beers, and they have lost sales to lower-calorie products, as well as imports and craft beers. 24/7 Wall St. looked at the 23 largest selling beer products in America and found eight that have lost a staggering 30 percent or more of their sales between 2005 and 2010. Most of the beers whose sales declined that much have one thing in common. They are “full-calorie” beers, or about 145 calories a can. Instead, beer drinkers have turned to “light beers,” which have 100 calories a can, and “ultra-lights,” which are closer to 90 calories. Surprisingly, Budweiser, the best-selling beer in America for years has lost 30 percent of its sales over the five-year period. Given that Budweiser sold 18 million barrels last year, this is a massive loss — more than 7 million barrels less. Sales of Bud Light, on the other hand, held steady at just over 39 million barrels during the five-year period. Six products on our list have lost half their sales since 2005. Other than lighter-calorie beers, drinkers have also turned to imports, such as Corona, and to craft beers, which are produced, and usually also consumed, in relatively small regions, according to Eric Shepard of beer marketer’s Insights. Overall, sales of beer from 2005 to 2010 rose 1.9 million barrels to 208.4 million barrels. But sales of the top 20 brands dropped 10 million barrels to 149 million, a sign that Americans have turned to craft beers and imports. These are the 24/7 Wall St.’s “Beers Americans No Longer Love”: 8. Budweiser (Sales loss: -30 percent ); 7. Milwaukee’s Best Light (Sales loss: -34 percent); 6. Miller Genuine Draft (Sales loss: -51 percent ); 5. Old Milwaukee (Sales loss: -52 percent); 4. Milwaukee’s Best (Sales loss: -53 percent); 3. Bud Select (Sales loss: -60 percent); 2. Michelob Light (Sales loss: -64 percent); 1. Michelob (Sales loss: -72 percent).






6. The penguin known as "Happy Feet" has vanished in the ocean on his way home from New Zealand, eluding his trackers just days after his release and leaving behind a mystery that may never be solved. After seizing global celebrity by going off-course and landing on a New Zealand beach far from its Antarctic abode, the emperor penguin has simply disappeared from the grid. Happy Feet's satellite transmitter went silent Friday, five days after experts released the bird from a research ship into the Southern Ocean about a quarter of the way down to Antarctica. Initial dispatches from the device showed that Happy Feet swam in a meandering route, ending up about 75 miles (120 kilometers) southeast of where he began by the time the last transmission came across Friday morning. Experts say his looping pattern was typical for a penguin chasing fish. At this point, the transmitter may have simply fallen off, experts told the Associated Press. It was attached to the bird's feathers with super glue and was supposed to fall off anyway early next year when he molted. "Who knows? He's probably swimming along quite happily without a transmitter on his back," said Peter Simpson, a program manager at New Zealand's department of conservation. Or, he may have died of natural causes. Or, something more sinister: Happy Feet could have been eaten by an orca or a leopard seal. Scientist likely will never know.






7 . The wealthiest country in the world has an increasing poverty rate as well as an increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor. The number of Americans living in poverty rose to 46.2 million last year, nearly one in six people, according to the US Census Bureau's annual report. The 2010 data shows the poverty rate at 15.1%, from 14.3% in 2009. The number of Americans without health insurance also rose slightly to 49.9 million. The poverty rate was the highest since 1983, and tied with the level in 1993. The number of Americans living below the poverty line has now risen for four years in a row. The US definition of poverty is an annual income of $22,314 (£14,129), or less for a family of four, and $11,139 for a single person. The Census Bureau data also showed that poverty among black and Hispanic people was much higher than for the overall US population last year - at 27.4% and 26.6% respectively. Outside of the poverty line, the average annual US household income fell 2.3% in 2010 to $49,445. Younger Americans were also strongly affected. Twenty-two percent of those under 18 were living under the poverty line, up from 20.7% in 2009. Reacting to the data, the Children's Leadership Council, an advocacy group, said: "The rising numbers of children living in poverty is a direct result of the choices made by political leaders who put billionaires before kids. America's children should be our top priority." Among regions, the South had the highest poverty rate at 16.9% and the highest percentage without health insurance at 19.1%. The state of Mississippi had the highest share of poor people, 22.7%. It was followed by Louisiana, the District of Columbia, Georgia, New Mexico and Arizona. At the other end of the scale, New Hampshire had the lowest share, at 6.6%.






8. A sophisticated new camera system can detect lies just by watching our faces as we talk, experts say. The computerized system uses a simple video camera, a high-resolution thermal imaging sensor and a suite of algorithms. Researchers say the system could be a powerful aid to security services. It successfully discriminates between truth and lies in about two-thirds of cases, said lead researcher Professor Hassan Ugail from Bradford University in the U.K.The system, developed by a team from the universities of Bradford and Aberystwyth in conjunction with the UK Border Agency, was unveiled today at the British Science Festival in Bradford. This new approach builds on years of research into how we all unconsciously, involuntarily reveal our emotions in subtle changes of expression and the flow of blood to our skin. We give our emotions away in our eye movements, dilated pupils, biting or pressing together our lips, wrinkling our noses, breathing heavily, swallowing, blinking and facial asymmetry. And these are just the visible signs seen by the camera. Even swelling blood vessels around our eyes betray us, and the thermal sensor spots them too. Traditional lie detection depends on the venerable polygraph, first developed in 1921, a much more invasive apparatus with a set of wires attached to the skin. This new device promises non-invasive, even covert truth tests in real time. "We bring together all this well-established work on expressions, these recent developments in thermal imaging, techniques for image tracking of subjects and our new algorithms into one operational system," said Professor Ugail.






9. Rapper 50 Cent's new movie has been forced to back down in a legal battle with representatives of the 80-year-old Nigerian novelist, Chinua Achebe. The rapper, whose real name is Curtis Jackson, had called his movie Things Fall Apart, the same title as Achebe's famous novel. The work of fiction was included in the list of Time magazine's All Time Top 100 Novels. Chinua Achebe continues to write and is currently a professor of Africana Studies at Brown University in Rhode Island. The movie's producers allegedly offered $1,000,000 for the rights to the title. Though Achebe himself has been silent on the issue, Naijan, a Nigerian news website, reports that the title would not be sold even if it were for 1 billion dollars. The rapper movie was written by 50 Cents and is loosely based on the life of his childhood best friend, a cancer victim. The film stars Ray Liotta alongside 50 Cent, and is directed by Mario Van Peebles, who also appears in the movie. According to indieWIRE, the new title of the film is All Things Fall Apart.






10. Thomas Jefferson stamped his place as a founding father with a slew of political and scholarly accomplishments. From his authoring of the Declaration of Independence, to his founding of the University of Virginia, Jefferson's fingerprints are all over America's successes. Professional points aside, Jefferson's personal life has come with its share of questions. Conventional wisdom has linked the third president of the United States to one of his female slaves, Sally Hemings. While the accusations against Jefferson date back to attacks during his presidency, The Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society has compiled information pointing away from perceived connections as the father of one of Hemings' children. The new scholarly report could refute those rumors. Using a combination of DNA evidence and documentation, these findings suggest that a different member of the Jefferson family could have fathered Hemings' child.






11. More children and young adults in the US are having strokes with unhealthy lifestyles being a likely cause, scientists have said. Researchers at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed hospital data on up to eight million patients a year between 1995 and 2008. In Annals of Neurology, the researchers stroke rates in five to 44-year-olds rose by about a third in under 10 years. Higher blood pressure, diabetes and obesity were common in stroke patients. The researchers looked at figures for ischemic stroke, due to blood clots, and hemorrhagic stroke, which is caused by bleeding on the brain. The rate of ischemic stroke increased by 31% in 5 to 14-year-olds, from 3.2 strokes per 10,000 hospital cases to 4.2 per 10,000. There were increases of 30% for people aged 15 to 34 and 37% in patients between the ages of 35 and 44. In all age groups the increase was greater in men than in women. Figures for hemorrhagic stroke showed decreases in age groups except the 5 to 14-year-olds, but the researchers said: "The increase in ischemic stroke far outweighs the decreases." The report said the prevalence of hypertension, obesity and tobacco use had increased in stroke patients. "Urgent public health initiatives are needed to reverse trends in modifiable risk factors associated with stroke in adolescents and young adults," the report concludes.






Monday, September 12, 2011

Knowledge Quiz, No. 20

I dislike the term trivia. No knowledge is trivial. All information contributes to the whole of an intelligent human being. And, it is an essential part of critical thinking. That is why I did not call this a Trivia Quiz. Instead, I am calling it a Knowledge Quiz.


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Knowledge Quiz, No. 20


The answers are at the bottom


1.Who built the first automobile?


2. In what city is the famous Portuguese Synagogue?


3. What is May Wine?


4. Who was "The Singing Nun"?


5. What is the capital of Australia?


6. In the popular television series, what did M*A*S*H stand for?


7. Who wrote The William Tell Overture?


8. What famous historic event took place in Fraunces Tavern in New York City?


9. Who wrote Man and Superman?


10. Who founded the Christian Science religion?


11. Who was the most prolific classical composer of all time?


12. Who was Paris?


13. In what city was the first Caesar Salad created?


14. What as the real name of American short story writer O. Henry?


15. Who was the Baby Ruth candy bar named after?


16. What is the root of the words Tsar and Kaiser?


17. Who was the month of January named after?


18. What is the longest suspension bridge in the world?


19. Who wrote Frankenstein?


20. Who was Joseph Lister?


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Answers


1. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler) were working on a car engine, Karl Benz is generally credited as the inventor of the modern automobile. He created a vehicle powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine. Benz built the vehicle in Mannheim, Germany, in 1885, and was granted a patent in January, 1886. He began to sell his vehicles in 1888. In August 1888 Bertha Benz, Karl Benz's wife, took the first road trip by car to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention.


2. The Portuguese Synagogue is in the former Jewish quarter of Amsterdam. It was built by Spanish and Portuguese who were expelled from Portugal in 1497 and sought refuge in Holland. On December 12, 1670, the Sephardic Jewish community of Amsterdam acquired the site to build a synagogue and construction work began on April 17, 1671. On August 2, 1675, the work on the synagogue was finished. The original building still survives.


3. May wine is the name of a German beverage that uses aromatic wine flavored with woodruff. May wine is served in the spring and often traditionally served on May Day, May 1. The base of the wine is made by taking sweet woodruff (a fragrant herb that grows in the forests of Northern Europe) and steeping it in white German wine. It is sometimes served with a fresh strawberry in the glass and it is available in many liquor stores in the U.S.


4. A Belgian nun, Jeanine Deckers (1933(1933-10-17) – 1985(1985-03-29)) was known in English as The Singing Nun. As a Dominican nun, she was called Sister Luc Gabriel. She became internationally famous in 1963 as Sœur Sourire (Sister Smile) when she scored a hit with the song, Dominique. In the English-language world, she was credited on her records as "The Singing Nun".


5. The capital of Australia is Canberra.


6. MASH is an acronym for Mobile Army Surgical Hospital. The units were first established in August, 1945, and were deployed during the Korean War and in later conflicts. The U.S. Army deactivated the last MASH unit on February 16, 2006.


7. The William Tell Overture is the overture to the Italian opera Guillaume Tell (in English, William Tell) by Gioachino Rossini. The 12 minute overture is more famous than the not often performed opera itself. There has been repeated use and sometimes parodies of parts of this overture in both classical music and popular media. It was also used as the theme music for The Lone Ranger radio and television shows.


8. Fraunces Tavern is a tavern, restaurant and museum housed in a reconstruction of a building which played a prominent role in Revolution history. After the Revolution ended, the tavern hosted an elaborate "turtle feast" dinner on December 4, 1783, in the building's Long Room for U.S. General George Washington bade farewell and delivered his famous Farewell Address to his officers of The Continental Army. He said in part, "(with)a heart full of love and gratitude, I now take leave of you. I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy as your former ones have been glorious and honorable." The building also housed some offices of the Confederated Congress under The Articles of Confederation. With the establishment of The Constitution and the inauguration of Washington as President in 1789, the departments of Foreign Affairs Treasury and War were located there. The building, located at 54 Pearl Street is the oldest surviving building in Manhattan, New York City. It has been The building has been owned by Sons of The Revolution in the State of New York Inc. since 1904.


9. Man and Superman was written George Bernard Shaw in 1903 as a four act drama. A part of the long third act, Don Juan in Hell (Act 3, Scene 2), is frequently performed as a separate play. The play was not produced in its entirety until 1915. The title of the play comes from Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical ideas about the "Ubermensch"("Superman"). The plot centers on John Tanner, author of The Revolutionist's Handbook and Pocket Companion, a real book written also by Shaw. Tanner is a confirmed bachelor (as Shaw was also) despite the pursuits of Ann Whitefield and her persistent efforts to make him marry her. Ann is referred to as "the Life Force" and represents Shaw's view that in every culture, it is the women who force the men to marry them rather than the men who take the initiative.


10. Mary Baker Eddy (1821 - 1910) was the founder of the Christian Science religion. Eddy claimed to have found healing power through a higher sense of God and she believed that man is made in God's spiritual "image and likeness." She became convinced that illness could be healed through an awakened thought brought about by a clearer perception of God and the explicit rejection of drugs, hygiene and medicine based upon the observation that Jesus did not use these methods for healing. Her works include Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures in 1875. She also established the Christian Science Publishing Society in 1898. It continues to publish periodicals she started including The Christian Science Monitor.


11. It is reputed to be Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767), a German Baroque composer. He composed more than 3,000 works. He wrote operas, cantatas, passions, oratorios, orchestral suites, chamber music, concertos and sonatas.


12. In Greek mythology, Paris was the son of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy. His elopement with the married queen of Sparta was one of the causes of the Trojan War. In a mythological story, Paris chooses the goddess thought to be the most beautiful from among Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. The three goddesses bribe him and when he chose Aphrodite, he was rewarded by her the love of the most beautiful woman on Earth, Helen of Sparta. During the war, he fatally wounded Achilles in the heel with an arrow, an event foretold by Achilles' mother, Thetis. Paris was mortally wounded in the war by Philoctetes.


13. Caesar salad's creation is generally attributed to restaurateur Caesar Cardini, an Italian immigrant who operated restaurants in Mexico and the United States. His daughter Rosa (1928–2003) said that her father invented the dish in San Diego when on the Fourth of July, 1924, he was faced with depleted kitchen's supplies. So, Cardini made do with what he had, adding the dramatic flair of the table-side tossing the salad himself. A real Caesar salad contains romaine lettuce and croutons with a dressing made of Parmesan cheese, lemon juice, olive oil, egg, Worcestershire sauce and black pepper.


14.The American short story writer O. Henry's real name was William Sydney Porter (1862-1910). No one knows for sure why he changed his name or why he chose the pen-name O. Henry, and during his lifetime, the author gave several explanations for it. His short stories remain popular today because of their wit, warmth and clever often ironic endings. Among his most famous works are The Ransom of Red Chief, The Gift of the Magi, The Last Leaf, and The Cop and the Anthem. During his lifetime, O. Henry wrote more than 600 stories.


15. The root of the Russian word Tsar and the German word Kaiser is the Roman name Caesar. The original meaning of the name is unknown. However, the four most common derivations of the word Caesar as given by the writer of the Historia Augusta are: 1. from caesaries, 'hair', because the founder of this branch of the family was born with a full head of hair. (Julius Caesar himself was balding in later life.); 2. from caesius, an eye color variously translated today as 'grey', 'blue-grey', and even 'blue'. (Julius Caesar himself had black eyes.); 3. from caesum, 'cut out', because the first Caesar was cut from his mother's womb, what has become known as a Caesarean section; 4. from caesai, a possibly maybe Punic language or Moorish word for elephant because the first Caesar had killed an elephant in battle.


16.The Baby Ruth candy was not named after ballplayer, Babe Ruth. It was named after the daughter of President Grover Cleveland (1837- 1908), Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904). She was a very sick child who died at the age of twelve of diphtheria. The candy bar was known as Kandy Kake from 1900 - 1920 before the name change. Baby Ruth is a popular American candy made of peanuts, caramel and chocolate-flavored nougat covered in chocolate.


17. January is named after Janus (Ianuarius), the Roman god of the doorway, transitions and entrances. The name comes from the word for door, ianua, because January is the door to the new year under the ancient Roman calendar. Most often the god Janus is depicted as having two faces on his head facing opposite directions. Symbolically they look simultaneously into the future and the past, back at the last year and forward to the next year.


18. The longest suspension bridge in the world is the Akashi Kaikyo bridge in Japan. It is 6,532 feet (1,991 meters) in length and was completed in 1998.


19. Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus was written by Mary Shelly, the wife of the Romantic poet, Percy Bysshe Shelly. She wrote the novel about the failed artificial life experiment that produced a monster when she was twenty-one and it was first published anonymously in 1818. Frankenstein has some elements of both the Gothic and Romantic novel and is also considered to be one of the earliest works of science fiction.


20. Sir Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912) was a British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile and antiseptic surgery. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds. That idea led to reducing post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients.

Friday, September 9, 2011

The Great Hypocrisy: Fundamentalism in America

The weekend of religious-themed observances at Washington National Cathedral marking the tenth anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks includes, the Dean of the Cathedral, a Buddhist nun, a Hindu priest, a Muslim Imam and musician, a Catholic Bishop, a rabbi, and an incarnate lama but not an evangelical Christian. This led the head of the Southern Baptist Convention to ask President Obama to reconsider attending the event.




The event entitled "A Call to Compassion" includes an interfaith prayer vigil on Sept. 11. However, leaders from evangelical Christian organization and churches including the Southern Baptists, the nation’s largest Protestant denomination, were not invited to participate. "It’s not surprising," said Frank Page, President of the Southern Baptist Convention Executive Committee. "There is a tragic intolerance toward Protestants and particularly toward evangelicals and I wish the President would refuse to speak unless it was more representative."




Richard Weinberg, the Cathedral’s director of communications, confirmed that Southern Baptists were not extended an invitation to participate. He said, "The goal was to have interfaith representation. The Cathedral itself is an Episcopal church and it stands to reason that our own clergy serve as Christian representatives.” He added that the Washington National Cathedral serves as the "spiritual home for the nation" and as such, he said that "diversity was first and foremost.... We certainly aim to appeal to as many in the country as possible and feel that our events are not any one slice that could ever represent the entire country, but that we are doing our best commemorate the events as it fits with our mission."




Tony Perkins, President of the Family Research Council said that the lineup was better suited for the United Nations than the United States. “Three quarters of the American people identify as Christian and nearly a third of them are evangelical Christian,” Perkins said. “And yet, there is not a single evangelical on the program. There’s no doubt that this is clearly politically correct,” Perkins said. “It is historically inaccurate that in times of need or mourning that Americans pray to the Hindu or Buddhist Gods or the God of Islam. America is overtly a Christian nation that prays to the Judeo-Christian God and specifically to Jesus Christ. It is very clear that it is that it is not politically correct to include evangelical Christians,” he said.







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There are many questions raised by this incident. One of them is why the Fundamentalist churches and The Family Research Council care whether they were invited or not. After all, these are the same churches and pastor who have said in the past that 9/11 was God's punishment for an immoral United States. Both Pat Robertson, the late Jerry Falwell and others said that openly after the attack. In addition, they tolerate Jews and support the State of Israel because they believe by doing so, they will hasten the end of the world and The Final Judgment. They erroneously insist that the U.S. is a Judeo-Christian country and has been from its inception.. They see Muslims as a threat or even worse in spite of the fact that Muslims worship the same God of the Old Testament of The Bible that they do. Many fundamentalists object to Catholicism, Mormonism and the more liberal Protestant denominations. Finally, they object to science, evolution, gays, liberals, Catholics, Mormons, Buddhists, Native American religions and Obama. So, did they really care about what went on in Washington's National Cathedral?




No. They only cared about portraying themselves as victims of a left-wing and liberalism. Look carefully at what was said by Tony Perkins: " There’s no doubt that this is clearly politically correct. It is historically inaccurate that in times of need or mourning that Americans pray to the Hindu or Buddhist Gods or the God of Islam." Historically incorrect? The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. During the founding of the republic there were Jews, Catholics, Muslims, Protestants, polytheistic Native Americans, Deists, atheists living in this country. Some of them even signed The Declaration of Independence. Religious diversity is older than the U.S. Furthermore, the God of Islam is the same God that both Jews and Christians worship. As to "political correctness", that is a condescending term for recognizing the reality of what America really is, diverse. And, the Fundamentalists and their mouth-pieces, the right-wing Republican Party and Fox News (the source of the above quotes) hate American diversity.




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In the religion debate currently taking place in America, the mainstream Protestants, minority religions and liberal Christians have virtually been silenced by the Fundamentalists and the media has ceded the debate to them. When was the last time that an Episcopal or Lutheran Bishop was interviewed on television? Why are Pat Robertson and the bigoted Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas, over-covered while prominent intelligent, rational and compassionate theologians remain virtually unknown.




There is a great deal over which Fundamentalist ideas and doctrine can be disputed or attacked. Consider the following:







· The Fundamentalists say that they take The Bible literally. However, they selectively follow Biblical teaching. Jesus had great concern for the welfare of people. He said, And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it (harm) unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it (harm) unto me. (Matthew 25:40) Yet, the Fundamentalists have aligned themselves with a political party that placates the wealthy and cuts aid to the poor, education and children's health.




· If they following Jesus' teaching literally, why do they ignore Jesus who said




1. You have heard that it was said, 'an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you. (Matthew 5:38-42)




2. But I say unto you which hear, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you, Bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloke forbid not to take thy coat also. Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again. And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. (Luke 6: 27-31)




3. And again I say to you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God. (Matthew19:2)




4. Judge not, that ye not be judged. (Matthew 7:1)




5. He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. (John 8:7)




6. And when you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites are for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Truly I say to you, They have their reward…. Be careful not to do your 'acts of righteousness' before men, to be seen by them. If you do, you will have no reward from your Father in heaven (Matthew 6:1 and 5).




· When asked, "Who is my neighbor?", Jesus told the parable of The Good Samaritan. Part of the point of that story was that the Samaritan was ethically and religiously different than the Jews. According to the parable, when the Jews walked by the man who was robbed and beaten, they did not stop. But the Samaritan did stop and helped the man. The point of the story is that we are all neighbors, whether we are of the same ethnic group or religion. And, as believers in Christ we must help one another.




· Jesus never talked about homosexuality. In objecting on religious grounds to homosexuality, the Fundamentalists are following Old Testament teachings. But, the Old Testament also says that you cannot eat pork or shell-fish, permits slavery, requires male circumcision, etc. Those items they ignore.




· Jesus said, "Turn the other cheek" and practiced what he preached. Yet, the Fundamentalists have no problem with vengeance, war, the gun ownership and capital punishment.




· The Fundamentalists take The Bible literally. Yet, The Bible is loaded with contradictions and implausibilities.




· The Fundamentalists discount Darwinism on the grounds that it conflicts with The Bible's account of creation. But, which account? There are stories and two orders of creation in Genesis and they say two different things. They also claim that Darwinism is just a theory. So is Germ Theory and Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Do the Fundamentalist seriously believe that there are no germs or relativity?







The over-riding question in all of this is why doesn't the media expose the contradictions and false assumptions which underlie Fundamentalism? Why are the mainline Protestant clergy and theologians absent from this debate. That fact is even more incredible given that during The Civil Rights movement, the Protestant clergy were the conscience of the nation and were visible prime-motivator for change. Finally, why are rational thinkers and the left-wing so afraid of discussing religion? Why are they so silent in the face of religious intolerance, bigotry and irrational thinking on the part of the sanctimonious, destructive, wrong-headed, and politically affiliated Fundamentalist religions in America?

Sunday, September 4, 2011

Knowledge Quiz, No. 18

I dislike the term trivia. No knowledge is trivial. All information contributes to the whole of an intelligent human being. And, it is an essential part of critical thinking. That is why I did not call this a Trivia Quiz. Instead, I am calling it a Knowledge Quiz.


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Knowledge Quiz, No. 18


The answers are at the bottom


1. Who were Abelard and Heloise?


2. Who wrote an essay entitled Fart Proudly?


3. Who wrote Lord of the Flies?


4. That is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta?


5. What is the principle ingredient in bourbon?


6. Who painted The Blue Boy?


7. What is the capital of Nepal?


8. Who were The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?


9. What does an elephant eat?


10.What is a tectonic plate?


11.What was the first feature-length cartoon movie?


12.Who was Tokyo Rose?


13.What is a diadem?


14 Who was Cadillac?


15.What is a cherub?


16.What is the currency of India called?


17.What was The Belle Époque?


18. How many years are in "four score and seven"?


19. What is a triathlon?


20. What is musk?


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Answers


1. Pierre Abélard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a medieval philosopher and theologian. He is considered one of the keenest minds of the 12th Century in Europe. Héloïse d’Argenteuil (1101? – 16 May 1164) was a writer and a scholar. The story of the affair between Abelard and Heloise is well-known and legendary. In his writings, Abélard tells the story of his seduction of Héloïse and their subsequent illicit relationship, which they continued until Héloïse bore him a son. Abélard secretly married Héloïse, and both tried to conceal this fact in order not to damage Abélard's career. Eventually, the affair came to light. As a result, Héloïse was forced to become a nun and Abélard was castrated. The common belief is that when both died, they were buried together in The Oratory of the Paraclete.


2. Fart Proudly is the popular name of an essay about flatulence written by Benjamin Franklin in circa 1781 while he was the American Ambassador to France. The essay is also known as A Letter To A Royal Academy and To the Royal Academy of Farting.


3. The classic British novel, Lord of the Flies, was written by the Nobel Prize-winning author, William Golding. Published in 1954, Lord of the Flies was Golding’s first novel. The story centers around a group of British boys stuck on a deserted island during a nuclear war and who try to govern themselves without traditional civilizing influences or adult authority. The results are disastrous. The story tackles such subjects as human nature, the common good, leadership, truth, and superstition. The title of the book is based on a quote from Shakespeare's King Lear (act 5, scene 1): As flies to wanton boys, are we to the gods; they kill us for their sport.


4. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta is also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), Order of Malta or Knights of Malta. It was once ruled the islands of Rhodes and Malta as an independent state. It still survives as a Roman Catholic lay religious order. It is the world's oldest surviving order of chivalry, is headquartered in Rome, and is widely considered a sovereign entity. SMOM has diplomatic relations with 104 nations, exchanges ambassadors with the European Union, and has unofficial relations with 6 countries. Some consider it the smallest nation in the world. SMOM issues its own postage stamps and has its own vehicle registration license plates.


SMOM is the modern continuation of the original medieval order of Saint John of Jerusalem. It was founded in Jerusalem in about 1050. Although the sovereign states it controlled came to an end with the ejection of SMOM from Malta by Napoleon, the Order survived. It retains its claims of sovereignty under international law and has been granted permanent observer status at the United Nations.


Today the order has about 13,000 members; 80,000 permanent volunteers; and 20,000 medical personnel including doctors, nurses, auxiliaries and paramedics. The goal is to assist the elderly, handicapped, refugees, children, homeless, those with terminal illness and leprosy in five continents of the world, without distinction of race or religion. In several countries including France, Germany and Ireland, the local associations of the Order are important providers of first aid training, first aid services and emergency medical services.


5. Bourbon is a type of American whisky. It is made from distilled corn, its principle ingredient. The name of the spirit derives from its historical association with an area known as Old Bourbon, around what is now Bourbon County, Kentucky, which in turn takes its name from the French royal family name, The House of Bourbon. It has been produced since the 18th century.


6. The famous oil painting, The Blue Boy, was painted in 1770 by Englishman, Thomas Gainsborough (1727- 1788). It takes its name from the blue 17th Century outfit the boy is wearing and is a historical costume study as well as a portrait. The painting is now in the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, and is considered the artist's most famous work.


7. The capital of the Himalayan nation of Nepal is Kathmandu.


8. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in 6:1-8 of the Book of Revelation, the last book of the New Testament of The Bible. According to the Book of Revelations, The Lamb of God (Jesus Christ) opens the first four of seven seals which summons forth four beings who ride forth on white, red, black, and pale horse. Traditionally, the four riders are commonly seen as symbolizing Conquest, War, Famine and Death. The appearance of the four horsemen are to set an apocalypse on the world and are harbingers of the Last Judgment by God.


9. Elephants are herbivores and spend up to 16 hours a day eating plants. They feed on the leaves, bark, and fruits of trees and shrubs, but they may also eat considerable grasses and herbs. An adult elephant consumes between 300 and 600 pounds (140–270 kg) of food a day.


10. Plate tectonics is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of the Earth's lithosphere. (On the Earth, the lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet and is composed of the crust and the upper mantle.) The theory of tectonic plates is built on the old concepts of continental drift. The theory maintains that the lithosphere is broken up into what are termed tectonic plates, and on Earth there are currently seven or eight major and many minor plates. These plates move in relation to one another. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building and ocean trenches occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates varies, though it is typically 0–100 millimeter annually.


11. It was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. It was made by Walt Disney Productions and released in 1937. The story was based on a Grimm Brothers fairy tale. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was one of only two animated films to rank in the American Film Institute's list of the 100 greatest American films of all time, the other being Disney's Fantasia.


12. Tokyo Rose was a generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II to any of approximately a dozen English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda. The intention of these broadcasts was to destroy the morale of the forces. However, the name Tokyo Rose is most strongly associated with Iva Toruri D'Aquinio. Her program consisted of propaganda-tinged skits and slanted news reports as well as popular American music. Others who were referred to as "Tokyo Rose" included the American Ruth Hayakawa, Canadian June Suyama, and Myrtle "Little Margie" Lipton.


13. A diadem is a type of crown. It is an ornamental headband worn by Eastern monarchs. The term originally referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips often draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. Such ribbons were also used to crown victorious athletes in important sports games in antiquity. It was later applied to a metal crown generally in a circular or "filet" shape. For example, the crown worn by the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was a diadem.


14. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac was the Frenchman who founded the city of Detroit and discovered what became the Louisiana Territory and claimed it for France. Cadillac was born in 1658 near Toulouse, France and in 1683 arrived in North America settling at Port Royal in Nova Scotia, Canada. In July, 1701, and in 1713 he was made governor of French Louisiana, the largest tract of land ever ruled by any governor in America. Three years later, Cadillac fell on financial troubles, was deposed, tried, and sentenced to 5 months in the Bastille. His last years were spent as Governor of Castelsarrasin in Southern France and he died there in 1730. The American luxury car is name in honor of him.


15. A cherub is a type of spiritual being mentioned in the Bible. The plural can be written as cherubim, cherubims or cherubs. In modern English the word cherub is sometimes used for what are strictly Putti, very young winged angels who are often depicted in art. However, the original meaning of the word is quite different from the erroneous meaning in common usage. Cherubim are mentioned in the Torah (the first five books of The Bible), and in the Book of Ezekiel, the Book of Isaiah,1 Kings, 2 Kings, Chronicles, and 2 Chronicles. There is only one mention in The New Testament. It is in Hebrews. The prophet Ezekiel describes cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces: of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle. They are said to have the stature and hands of a man, feet of a calf, and four wings each. Two of the wings extended upward, meeting above and sustaining the throne of God; while the other two stretched downward and covered the creatures themselves.


16. The currency of India is the rupee.


17. The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European artistic and social history that spanned from the late 19th century until the outbreak of World War I. It occurred during the French Third Republic. It was characterized as a period of opulence, optimism, and new discoveries. In the newly rich United States it is referred to as The Gilded Age and in the United Kingdom it is called the late Victorian and Edwardian Eras.


18. Four score and seven is 87. A score is 20. The term "Four score and seven years ago" are the opening words in Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address delivered on Thursday, November 19,1863.


19. A triathlon is a multi-sport event involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance events. There are many variations of the sport; however, a triathlon in popular usage involves swimming, cycling and running. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion time, including timed transitions between the individual events. It is an Olympic event.


20. Musk is an aromatic substance commonly used in perfumery. It is a glandular secretion from animals such as the musk deer, numerous plants emitting similar fragrances, and artificial substances with similar odors. It is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. The name, originated from ancient Sanskit word muṣká which means "testicle". The word has come to encompass a wide variety of substances with somewhat similar odors. Until the late 19th century, natural musk was used extensively in the making of perfume, but both economic and ethical concerns have led to the adoption of synthetic musk. The use of natural musk pods also occurs in traditional Chinese medicine.