Thursday, September 22, 2016
Neglected Important Artists, No. 33
Valerius de Saedeleer
Valerius de Saedeleer (August 4,1867 - September 16, 1941) was a Belgian landscape painter whose works are informed by a symbolist and mystic-religious sensitivity and the traditions of 16th-century Flemish landscape painting. He was one of the main figures in the so-called first School of Latem which in the first decade of the 20th century introduced modernist trends in Belgian painting and sculpture.
Valerius de Saedeleer
He was born in Aalst, Belgium, as the son of a small businessman who operated a soda and soap making factory. As a result of conflicts with his parents and problems at school, he left school at age fifteen and was forced by his father to study an acceptable profession. To this end, he was employed as an apprentice at a Ghent weaving workshop and took classes in weaving at an industrial school in Ghent. Without his parents' knowledge he enrolled at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ghent, where he met Theo van Rysselberghe and George Minne.
Unhappy with the academic teaching at the Ghent Academy, he moved to Brussels where he studied for four years with the impressionist landscape painter Franz Courtens. He then started working as an independent artist. In his early work, the artist remained indebted to his teacher Courtens and was influenced by Emile Claus. This showed he still searching for his own style.
On November 16,1889, the young artist married Clementina 'Clemmeke' Limpens (1867-1930), a grocer's daughter from Erembodegem, near Aalst. They had five daughters, of which the second, Elisabeth de Saedeleer (1902-1972), became an artist in her own right. The father of de Saedeleer's wife gave her a large sum of money as dowry. The young couple used the funds to establish a grocery in Blankenberge. The bankruptcy that followed quickly led to the couple's wandering and destitute existence.
They lived for short periods in Blankenberge, Wenduine, Damme and Ghent. In 1892 the couple lived in Afsnee, near Ghent, where de Saedeleer met Albijn Van den Abeele. Albijn Van den Abeele was the town clerk of Sint-Marten-Latem (often referred to by its shorter form 'Latem') and an amateur painter. He arranged for cheap lodging for artists in Sint-Marten-Latem and thereby supported the launch of one of the most important artistic movements in early 20th century Belgium. From April to October 1893, de Saedeleer lived in Sint-Martens-Latem. Here he reconnected with his friend George Minne and met the young student and aspiring poet Karel van de Woestijne. Between 1895 and 1898, de Saedeleer and his wife lived in Lissewege where they raised chickens.
In 1898, de Saedeleer moved back to Sint-Martens-Latem. There, he formed part of the first artist colony of the village together with Gustave van de Woestijne (the brother of Karel van de Woestijne) and George Minne. This group of artists were later referred to as the first School of Latem. The first School of Latem comprised mainly artists who had moved to the countryside in search of a close contact with the soil, to discover a primitive world untainted by modern civilization. There they hoped to find values such as integrity, spontaneity and simplicity. In their quest for that purity they re-examined the art of the old masters. They were influenced by the symbolism that sought to imbue reality with values. They were also inspired by a Christian world-view bordering on the mystical. The painters moved away from the then popular luminism of Emile Claus and his followers and turned towards a more somber and sober pallet, with influences of late Medieval Flemish painting. Around 1905, other artists moved to Sint-Martens-Latem. These artists, the most notable of whom included Constant Permeke, Albert Servaes and Gustave de Smet, are referred to as the second School of Latem. They started out as impressionists but would develop towards an expressionist idiom in reaction to their experiences in World War I.
Despite the success of a first exhibition in 1901 in Aalst, de Saedeleer struggled to live solely from his art and was forced to raise poultry for a living. The next year he visited the Exposition des Primitifs Flamands à Bruges, which left a lasting impression and influence on his work. In 1903, he exhibited his landscapes at the Salon in Paris, where he was influenced by the works of Émile-René Ménard. The same year he converted to Christianity. From 1904-1905 onwards, de Saedeleer found his own style. His work started to show a synthetic, purified vision. His landscapes no longer referenced time or space. He represented the still nature in a composed landscape which was almost always limited by a low horizon. The surface of his canvases was smoothed and he used a soft harmony of colors. The landscapes of this time have a sublime, almost unreal sense of space. In these works, the artist was engaged in a symbolic search for the soul of the landscape, likely under the influence of his conversion to Christianity. He often painted winter landscapes.
De Saedeleer exhibited at the 1904 exhibitions of the Berlin, Munich and Vienna Secession and a few exhibitions in Belgium. He started getting attention in the media and collectors started buying his work. By 1907, he had become the most successful of the painters from Latem. He was particularly well received in the German speaking countries, where the influence of Eugène Laermans on his work was noted. He exhibited at the Salon in Ghent in 1906. In 1907, he had an exhibition in Ghent together with Maurits Sys and Gustave van de Woestijne.
In 1908 he moved to Tiegem. The move to this more hilly area of Flanders was reflected in his landscapes. The mostly flat views of the Leie landscapes changed to more hilly landscapes. He remained successful, and in 1909 the Museums of Fine Arts of Ghent and Aalst acquired some of his works. In 1911 the Belgian royal family bought his Smidse in de Winter (Smithy in Winter), a snow landscape. He later exhibited at the "Pour l'Art" exhibitions in 1912 and 1914, and was one of the co-founders of "La Jeune Peinture Belge" in 1924. In 1913 his old friend from Latem, Gustave van de Woestijne, joined him in Tiegem.
From 1914 de Saedeleer and his family lived in Wales as refugees from the First World War. Together with his family and the family of his friend George Minne he lived a number of years in Cwmystwyth. Gustave van de Woestijne and George Minne and their families also resided in Wales during the war. The family de Saedeleer and other Belgian artists were brought to Wales by David, Gwendoline and Margaret Davies. The two Davies sisters were best known for putting together one of the great British art collections of the 20th Century. The initiative of the Davies family in inviting Belgian artists to Wales was prompted by their expectation that these artists would be able to inject local cultural life with their expertise. De Saedeleer's daughters studied weaving, binding and tapestry at Aberystwyth. The second daughter Elisabeth became acquainted with William Morris' daughter Mary from whom she learned tapestry weaving. The family became so accomplished at weaving that they even started giving courses in the craft themselves. De Saedeleer may have undertaken some conservation work on items from the Aberystwyth University Collection. He also exhibited his paintings of local views in the University's Alexandra Hall and was able to earn a living from his art.
De Saedeleer remained in Wales until 1920, when he moved to Etikhove. In 1933 he became an honorary citizen of the city of Aalst. In 1937 he moved to Leupegem. The work of de Saedeleer became gradually more decorative and he developed a luxuriant and whimsical calligraphy. His compositions often included a row of trees in the foreground, a Japanese-style effect with which he had already experimented before the war. This device is clear in the composition Winter in Flanders. He was also an accomplished colorist.
The work of de Saedeleer was influential on Belgian landscape painters of the next generation such as Albert Claeys and Albert Saverys whose work referenced de Saedeleer and his inspiration, Pieter Brueghel the Elder.
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Works by Valerius de Saedeleer
Le coin du village
En plein hiver
Winter Landscape in Wales
Summer Landscape in Wales
Lente te Etikhove
View of a Valley in Wales
La ferm au bord de l'eau
Road Through A Winter Landscape
Mountains in Cartiganshire
De houten standardmolen van tiegem