The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. A natural satellite is a space body that orbits a planet, a planet like object or an asteroid.
long ago, the Earth's gravitational effects slowed the moon's rotation about its axis. Once the moon's rotation slowed enough to match its orbital period (the time it takes the moon to go around Earth) the effect stabilized. Many of the Moons around other planets behave similarly.
What about phases? Here's how they work: As the Moon orbits Earth, it spends part of its time between us and the Sun, and the lighted half faces away from us. This is called a new moon. So, there is no such thing as a "dark side of the Moon," just a side that we never see. As the moon swings around on its orbit, a thin sliver of reflected sunlight is seen on Earth as a crescent moon. Once The Moon is opposite the Sun, it becomes fully lit from our view. That is known as a full moon.
More than 400 trees on Earth came from the Moon's lunar orbit. In 1971, Apollo 14 astronaut Stuart Roosa took a bunch of seeds with him and, while Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell were busy sauntering around on the surface, Roosa guarded his seeds. Later, the seeds were germinated on Earth, planted at various sites around the country, and came to be called the Moon trees. Most of them are doing fine.
Scientists say they think the Moon probably has a core that is hot and perhaps partially molten, as is Earth's core. But, data from NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft showed in 1999 that the moon's core is small, probably between 2 percent and 4 percent of its mass. This is tiny compared with Earth, in which the iron core makes up about 30 percent of the planet's mass.
As you read this, the Moon is moving away from us. Each year, the moon steals some of Earth's rotational energy, and uses it to propel itself about 3.8 centimeters higher in its orbit. Researchers say that when it formed, the moon was about 14,000 miles (22,530 kilometers) from Earth. It's now more than 280,000 miles, or 450,000 kilometers away.