Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Facts about Cuba

The official name of Cuba is the Republic of Cuba.

Cuba is the largest of all islands in the Caribbean. The main island of Cuba is often referred to as Cuba, but its actual name is Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth). 

Cuba also includes more than 4000 other much smaller islands and cays.

From the air, the island of Cuba resembles a crocodile or alligator and so Cuba is often referred to in Spanish as "El Cocodrilo" or "El Caimá".

Cuba is the 17th largest island in the world.

Pico Real del Turquino is the highest peak in Cuba.

The capital and largest city of Cuba is Havana or "La Habana" in Spanish.

Cuba has a population of 11 million people (11,061,886) as of July 2013. Cuba is also  the most populated country in all of the Caribbean.

The size of Cuba is 110,860 sq km.

The median age in Cuba is 39.9 years.

The ethnic composition of Cuba is: white 64.1%, mulatto and mestizo 26.6%, and black 9.3%.

The GDP is estimated to be $121 billion.

The unemployment rate in Cuba is 4.3%.

Before the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Cuba was receiving subsidies worth $4-$6 billion a year.

The United States pays Cuba approximately $4,085 a year to lease the 45 square miles that the Guantánamo Bay Naval Station occupies. Cuba has not accepted the payment since 1959.

In 2013, the U.S. Coast Guard stopped approximately 1,357 Cuban migrants attempting to reach the U.S.

Cuba has one of the lowest birth rates in all of the Western Hemisphere.

Original indigenous inhabitants of Cuba were the Guanajatabey people followed by the Ciboney and Taíno tribes. 

Cuba possesses one of the best health care systems anywhere in the world.

There are so many doctors in Cuba that they are often sent to other countries that have a shortage.

Cuba is renowned for its music. Bands play everywhere in the capital, Havana. The main musical form is called "son", which is a combination of upbeat rhythms with classical guitar.

Sugar from sugar cane is the main crop grown in Cuba, followed by tobacco which is used in the making of hand-crafted cigars that are famous for being the finest cigars in the world.

Nickel is Cuba's most important mineral resource at 21% of total exports in 2011 nearly 4% of the world's production.

In a traditional Cuban meal the food is not served in courses. Instead, all the food is served at the same time.

Baseball is the most popular sport in Cuba. The country is also dominant in boxing and has produced a number of Olympic boxing champions. Other sports of interest include basketball, volleyball, cricket, football (soccer) and athletics.

The game of dominoes is also extremely popular in Cuba.

As of 2013 Cuba has 9 sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list, 7 of these cultural sites and 2 of them natural.

Bacardi rum was originally manufactured in Cuba. However, the brand moved to Puerto Rico after Fidel Castro’s takeover.

Ernest Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and  The Old Man and the Sea  while living in Cuba.

The worlds’ smallest hummingbird and smallest frog are found in Cuba.

The Manjuari is a fish not found anywhere else in the world.

There are no animals or plants in Cuba that are poisonous or lethal to humans.

Christmas did not become an official holiday in Cuba until 1997.

Very few people are allowed internet access, and violators are given a 5 year prison sentence.


In 1492, the explorer Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Cuba and claims it for Spain. Spain controlled the island until 1898, making it a hub for the slave trade and the export of sugar and coffee.

In 1898, the U.S. assisted Cubans in winning independence from Spain during the Spanish-American War. The Treaty of Paris gave the U.S. temporary control of Cuba.

In 1902,  Cuba was granted independence by the U.S.

In 1903, the new Republic of Cuba leases 45 square miles of land in Guantánamo Bay to the U.S. for construction of a naval station. Building on the naval station began  the same year.

In 1952, former President Fulgencio Batista staged a coup with the support of the army and assumed  dictatorial power.

On July 26, 1953,  Fidel Castro and approximately 150 others attack the Moncada military barracks in Santiago de Cuba in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Batista regime.

On October 16, 1953,  Castro is sentenced to 15 years in prison.

On May 15, 1955, Castro and his brother, Raul, are released as part of a general amnesty for political prisoners.

On December 2, 1956, eighty-two exiles land in Cuba, on a yacht named Granma. Most are killed immediately. The survivors, including the Castros, flee to the Sierra Maestra Mountains. During 1957-1958, they wage a guerrilla campaign from this base, which includes skirmishes with government troops and burning sugar crops.

On January 1, 1959, Batista is overthrown by Castro's forces.

In 1960, Cuba nationalizes approximately $1 billion of U.S. owned property on the island. In response, the U.S. places a trade embargo on Cuba.

In January, 1961,the U.S. and Cuba end diplomatic relations.

In April, 1961,the U.S. backs Cuban exiles in an unsuccessful attempt to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.

In October, 1962, The U.S. discovers that the Soviet Union is building missile installations in Cuba. The standoff ends with the Soviet Union withdrawing the missiles and the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba.

Between April and September,1980Fidel Castro allows anyone who wants to leave Cuba to freely depart from the port of Mariel, Cuba. Approximately 124,000 Cuban migrants enter the United States.

In 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton eased travel restrictions to Cuba.

Cuban TV announces that Fidel Castro is undergoing intestinal surgery and has provisionally handed over power to his younger brother, Raul.

On February 19, 2008, Fidel Castro announces his resignation as president because of failing heath in a letter published in the middle of the night in the online version of Cuba's state-run newspaper, Granma.

On February 24, 2008, Fidel Castro's brother Raul Castro is chosen by Cuba's National Assembly to be the country's new president.

On February 24, 2013, Raul Castro is re-elected to a second five-year term. Later during a nationally televised speech, Castro announces that he will step down from power in 2018 when his term is over.

In 2013, the U.S. Coast Guard stopped approximately 1,357 Cuban migrants attempting to reach the U.S.

On December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama announces plans to normalize diplomatic relations with Cuba and ease economic restrictions on the nation, a policy shift he called the end of an "outdated approach" to U.S.-Cuban relations that, "for decades, has failed to advance our interests." Obama said the U.S. will move towards re-opening its embassy in the communist nation and allow some travel and trade that had been banned under a decades-long embargo instated during the Kennedy administration.

Friday, December 26, 2014

Facts about the Penis

The Human Penis
The pressing sexual question asked by men from all walks of life is, does penis size matter? This hotly debated topic stems from men’s preoccupation with the glorified male body part and what they believe it says about their manhood. While some men pride themselves over their above-average size and others tuck themselves away in a corner, the truth is the vast majority of men have more than enough bulk and length to sexually perform.
It is time to separate fact from fiction with these little-known or ignored penis facts.
They are:
All penises actually start off as clitorises.

Most men underestimate the size of their penis.

There are two types of penises. One kind expands and lengthens when becoming erect (a grower). The other appears big most of the time, but doesn't get much bigger after achieving erection (a shower).

An international Men's Health magazine survey reports that 79 percent of men have growers, 21 percent have showers.

The average erect penis is a little more than 5 inches long and 1.5 inches in diameter. Specifically, a 2013 study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine found the average American man’s penis is 5.6 inches (14.2 centimeters) long when erect and 4.8 inches in circumference. Only 15 percent of men are over 7 inches, and only three percent are over 8 inches.

An erection begins in the brain. Physical and/or mental stimulation cause nerves in the brain to send chemical messages to nerves in the penis telling the penile blood vessels to relax so that blood can flow freely into the penis. Once in the penis, high pressure traps the blood within both corpora cavernosa. This causes the penis to expand and sustain an erection.

An erection is reversed when the inflow of blood is stopped and opening outflow channels open, allowing the penis to become soft.

Ejaculation, the release of semen at climax, is triggered when the man reaches a critical level of excitement. Sexual stimulation causes nerves in the penis to send chemical messages or impulses to the spinal cord and into the brain where other chemical messages are sent back to the penis -- via the spinal cord -- causing ejaculation.

Ejaculation has two phases. During the first phase, the vas deferens, which are the tubes which store and transport sperm from the testes, contract to squeeze sperm toward the back of the urethra. The seminal vesicles also release secretions into the back of the urethra. During the second phase, the posterior urethra senses the secretions within it (at the height of sexual excitement) and sends signals to the spinal cord to, in turn, send powerful signals to the muscles at the base of penis to vigorously contract every 0.8 seconds and force the semen out of the penis.
According to condom manufacturers, only 6 percent of the male population needs extra-large condoms.

Men looking for one-night stands may feel under a lot of pressure for a night of meaningless sex. A 2014 study presented at the meeting of the Association for Psychological Science in San Francisco, California, in June, found girth, not length, matters for one-time partners, but not for long-term ones. The researchers speculate this preference could be because the vagina’s pressure-sensitive nerve endings can detect the sensations of stretching, which could detect penis girth. Larger girths tend to bring the clitoris closer to the vagina during sex, which is believed to help women achieve orgasms.
Penis size does matter for one-night stands, but what about for the others? Less-endowed men can rest assured bigger genitalia isn’t always better. In an ASAPScience video, Does Penis Size Matter? Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown found a penis in proportion with the male body is much more desirable by women. It is a man’s confidence, enjoyable personality, and attraction that are strong predictors for sexual satisfaction, and weigh far higher than disproportionate penis size.
No matter how well-endowed men are, they are likely to experience penis anxiety when they think about the perceived size of their penis. A 2013 study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine found even men who were average or above-average, along with a less endowed package, expressed feelings of inadequacy and self-consciousness. Thirty-five percent of men surveyed were happy with their penis size and 30 percent reported dissatisfaction with their size.
Penis anxiety was highest among gay, bisexual, and older men. It is believed the prevalence of penis shame among gay and bisexual men could be attributed to the opportunities to compare body parts. However, in older men, this insecurity could derive from fears about the physical ability to perform.
The answer to whether or not penis size matters is arguable, but Germany has risen to the occasion. As the world’s capital for penis enlargement, it's clear size matters - at least to them. 2014 data by the International Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery found 18 percent of all penis enlargements in the world are done in Germany. This translates to roughly eight out of every 100,000 adult males who reside in the country. Venezuela, Spain, and Mexico shortly follow Germany with the countries with the most penis enlargement operations.

There are a plethora of penis enhancement creams, pills, and procedures that promise to increase a man’s penis size, but the truth is there is no scientifically proven way to increase penis size. Psychology Today suggests losing the pot belly by exercising, eating less meat and cheese, and more plant foods to shed the weight. A big belly can touch the base of the penis and actually make it look smaller. Losing belly fat will help make your penis look bigger in size.

Men have "spontaneous" erections during the day that have nothing to do with arousal.

Erections also occur while sleeping are common and there is even a medical term for it - Nocturnal Penile Tumescence, or NPT.  Men average about five erections per night. NPT often occurs during REM sleep where it is believed that the brain stops releasing a chemical the normally suppresses erections. NPT also occurs for men with a full bladder - a type of reflex erection, suggesting a mechanism to prevent urination while sleeping (nocturnal enuresis). A common slang term for the full bladder NPT is "morning wood". NPTs are believed to contribute to penis health.

Penises can actually break. A penis can suffer a fracture or trauma usually from aggressive sex. It’s a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.


Even a little tiny fetus can have an erection. Ultrasound tests have shown that it can happen in the third trimester.

On average, the size of a gay man’s penis is a third of an inch longer. A 1999 study published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior found erect gay penises tend to be this length, and suspect it might have something to do with prenatal hormones that affect the structure and size of genitalia, and certain structures of the brain that affect sexual orientation. Penis size was self-reported.

According to a study by the University of Ulster-Northern Ireland, men in the Republic of Congo have the biggest average penis size in the world. The average length of a Congolese man's penis was 7.1 inches.

Scientists have tried to connect the size of men’s penises to the size of their feet, noses, thumbs, earlobes, and index fingers. A 2006 study published in the West African Journal of Medicine tested the well-held belief that a man’s penis size can be predicted by his physique and the size of his buttocks, with people of small physique and flat buttocks likely to have long penile lengths. While this relationship may have a scientific basis, the researchers found large buttocks are more predictive of longer penile length than small buttocks, but penile length has no relationship to physique. Overall, you cannot predict penis size without looking at the penis

Smoking can shorten your penis by as much as a centimeter. Erections are all about good blood flow, and lighting up calcifies blood vessels, stifling erectile circulation.

Men generally slowly lose penis sensitivity with age with a sharper decline starting around age 65. Many healthy men under 65 report having too much sensitivity and not being able to control ejaculation.

An enlarged prostate gland can cause both erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. If a man has an unexplained case of either, he should ask his doctor to checking his prostate.

The average male orgasm lasts 6 seconds.  The average female orgasm lasts 23 seconds.

Circumcision gained popularity in the United States during the 19th century to help stop masturbation. At that time masturbation was thought to lead to insanity so many doctors recommend circumcision for baby boys. The procedure is now recommended by the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Pediatric Society as a disease preventative for both men and women and to keep the penis clean.

An enlarged prostate gland can cause both erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. If a man has an unexplained case of either, he should ask his doctor to checking his prostate.

Circumcised foreskin can be reconstructed. Movable skin on the shaft of the penis is pulled toward the tip and set in place with tape. Later, doctors apply plastic rings, caps, and weights. Many years will pass until complete coverage is attained. However, the frenulum  (the piece of skin which attaches the penis head to the foreskin) can never be replaced.

Doctors can now grow skin for burn victims using the foreskins of circumcised infants. One foreskin can produce 23,000 square meters, which would be enough to tarp every Major League infield with human flesh.

Only one man in 400 is flexible enough to give himself oral pleasure.

German researchers say the average intercourse lasts 2 minutes, 50 seconds, yet women perceive it as lasting 5 minutes, 30 seconds.

The longer a man's penis is, the better the "semen displacement" achievement is when having sex with a woman flush with competing sperm. That's according to researchers at the State University of New York, who used artificial phalluses to test the "scooping" mechanism of the penis's coronal ridge.

Better-looking men may have stronger sperm. Spanish researchers showed women photos of guys who had good, average, and lousy sperm and told them to pick the handsomest men. The women chose the best sperm producers most often.

The brain is unnecessary for ejaculation. The order comes from the spinal cord.

The most common cause of penile rupture comes from vigorous masturbation.

There is a condition known as Koro. It is an irrational fear of retraction of a penis back into the body.

There is a yearly festival in Japan devoted to the penis and fertility. The Festival of the Steel Phallus is celebrated every year on April 6. It started in the 17th century as an event in which  prostitutes praying for protection from sexually transmitted diseases. It is now an event for AIDS awareness.

There is a museum in Iceland strictly solely devoted to penises. It contains 283 penises from 93 species including humans.

The Circumcised Penis

The Uncircumcised Penis